Total Hip Replacement Surgery Mumbai
Overview on Hip Replacement
Hip replacement surgery is also known as total hip arthroplasty. Replacement is performed on a damaged hip joint, mostly due to osteoarthritis. Other causes may include rheumatoid arthritis and injury to the hip caused by trauma such as fracture.
Hip replacement surgery is performed when the patient is suffering from incessant pain that restricts the daily activities and compromises the quality of life. The medication in such a situation provides only limited relief from the pain. Hip replacement surgery involves replacing the hip joint with new artificial joint parts and these artificial parts are known as “prosthesis”. The aim of hip replacement surgery is to increase patient’s mobility, offer relief from pain and improve function of the hip joint.
The surgery should improve the quality of the patient’s life. Hip replacement surgery can be performed either traditionally or by using what is considered a minimally-invasive technique. The main difference between these two procedures is the size of the incision. Hip replacement surgery is considered as one of the most successful operations in all of medicine.
Types of Hip Replacement Surgery
Total Hip Replacement
The most common type of hip replacement surgery is called a total hip replacement. In this surgery, worn out or damaged parts of your hip are replaced with artificial implants. The socket is replaced with a durable plastic cup, which may or may not include a titanium metal shell. Your femoral head will be removed and replaced with a ball made from ceramic or a metal alloy and a new ball will be attached to a metal stem, which is inserted into the top of your femur. The benefit of this type of procedure is that the two components of the artificial hip are designed to work together and the affected area is completely removed so that you don’t suffer from further bone-related issues.
Partial Hip Replacement
Partial hip replacement surgery involves removing and replacing the patient’s femoral head, which is the ball at the top of the femur, or thighbone and does not replace the socket. A metal ball or ceramic is attached to the top of a stem that is inserted into the hollow center of the femur. The surgeon typically performs the surgery to repair certain types of hip fractures. Most partial hip replacement surgeries are performed in less than one hour in a hospital or surgical center. The surgeon can choose to conduct open surgery where a long incision is made diagonal to the joint or a less-invasive computer-assisted procedure that requires only one or two small cuts. Computer-assisted surgery is usually preferred if the amount of bone that needs to be resurfaced or realigned is minimal.
Hip resurfacing helps in relieving pain from cartilage loss. The surgeon trims damage from the natural bone ball at the top of the thighbone. He or she then resurfaces it with a smooth metal covering. The surgeon also lines the natural bone socket of the hip with a metal lining or a shell. However, hip resurfacing does run the risk of not fully addressing the problem or causing further wear to the bone socket, meaning a total hip replacement may be required eventually. Only specific patients would be suitable for this procedure, so consulting with a specialist is recommended to understand whether this be a potentially viable treatment.
Benefits of Hip Replacement Surgery
Choosing to have your hip replaced is a major decision and so asking about the benefits is a good way to determine if hip replacement surgery is the right choice for you. The major reason and the greatest benefit of hip replacement surgery is that it relieves you from pain.
The procedure offers other benefits such as improved movement, strength and coordination of the torso and leg, the ability to walk, climb stairs and maintain an active and healthy lifestyle in greater comfort. In severe cases, hip pain can be quite deliberating and even the most gentle of movements can leave the sufferer in agony. Most hip replacement surgeries reduce the pain dramatically and in some cases eradicate it entirely.
After hip surgery many people are able to resume activities such as walking, swimming, cycling and golf, giving them a new lease of life. The secondary benefits of hip replacement surgery is that it reduces the risk of chronic health conditions such as heart failure, diabetes and depression.
In order to prepare for hip replacement surgery, patients are requested to schedule a series of appointments prior to the surgery date to receive testing and clearance for surgery. During these appointments, studies including urine analysis, lab testing, EKG and X-rays are conducted. Based on the results of all these tests and the patient’s health history, clearance is initiated for the surgery.
Depending on the patient’s condition, additional tests may be required prior to surgery. Patients can also take a few steps at home to help ensure an easier recovery after surgery. This may include a few simple changes around the house and arranging someone to help you during the period following surgery. It is also necessary for the patient to discuss with their surgeon about whether they should donate their own blood for surgery and schedule appointments to see a primary care doctor and a dentist. To improve your surgery risk and recovery rate, try to stop or cut down smoking, incase you do.
The risks of hip replacement include blood clots in the lower extremities that can travel to the lungs. Severe cases of pulmonary embolism are quite rare but can cause respiratory failure and death. Other problems include difficulty with urination, local skin or joint infection, fracture of the bone during and after surgery, limitation of motion of the hip, dislocation of the hip replacement, scarring and loosening of the prosthesis that eventually leads to prosthesis failure.
Because total hip joint replacement requires anesthesia, the usual risks of anesthesia include heart arrhythmias, stroke, liver toxicity and pneumonia. The patients who follow guidelines of physical therapy are at a lower risk of developing blood clots. After the surgery, patients are routinely prescribed medications in order to further minimize the risk of blood clots. If a patient experiences symptoms of DVT or PE in the weeks to months following surgery, they should promptly call their surgeon or seek other medical attention.
A total hip joint replacement generally takes two to four hours of surgical time. The preparation before the surgery may take up additional time. After the surgery, patient is taken to a recovery room for immediate observation that generally lasts between one to four hours. The lower extremities will be observed for both adequate sensation and circulation. If the patient experiences unusual symptoms of numbness or tingling, recovery room nurses are available and should be notified by the patient. The patient is transferred to a hospital room upon stabilization. During the recovery period, patients are given intravenous fluids. These fluids are important to maintain a patient’s electrolytes and replace any fluids lost during surgery.
Why would someone need hip replacement?
Hip replacement is often necessary after the cartilage between a patient’s femur and pelvis wears out. Severe arthritis often results from the lack of cartilage and leaves patients with severe pain and immobility. Usually, a hip replacement is not performed unless nonsurgical methods fail to relieve hip pain.
What happens during a hip replacement?
While the patient is under anesthesia, the hip is cut open and the arthritic bone in the socket of the joint is properly cleaned. The surgeon also removes arthritic bone from the femoral head and then inserts an artificial femoral head down into the femur. The joint is then complete and the surgeon shaves arthritic bone from the knee cap before replacing and closing the incision.
Will I be pain-free after the surgery?
Although patients are sore after the surgery, most hip replacement patients report being completely pain-free after 3-4 weeks.
How long will full recovery take?
The patients should be able to move around the house after 4-6 weeks without experiencing any pain or using any sort of walking aid. After this period, the amount of time that is necessary for a full recovery varies from patient to patient.
What sort of Post-Operative Care will I require?
Initially, you may need the help of a close friend or a family member for everyday tasks such as getting dressed and showering. The length of time you may need assistance depends on the patient but it is usually anywhere from several days to a few weeks.
Will I need physical therapy?
Yes. Physical therapy is an essential part of your hip replacement recovery process. Physical therapy begins the following day of your surgery and will take place over a period of several weeks.
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